Thursday, January 2, 2014

What are inherent moisture (IM) and total moisture(TM.) in coal?

When coal is traded in its specifications two types of moisture values are mentioned.  This is very important as it affects the cost of fuel per unit of power generated or per kg of steam produced by the boiler. i.e. it affects the boiler efficiency.

The moisture in Coal consists of two parts.

Profit is in moisture than coal for mine owners
  1. One is the moisture held within the molecular structure of the coal called “inherent moisture.” Removal takes place only at temperatures greater than 100 deg C.

  1. The second part is the moisture that is on the surface of the coal. This is normally due to the conditions and locations of the mines. This moisture can evaporate in exposed atmospheric conditions. How much evaporates depends on
    • The time of exposure,
    • Atmospheric contact because of spreading,
    • Ambient temperature and humidity.
The Moisture in the Coal is both these put together and is the “Total Moisture.”

     TM – IM  is the surface moisture, which is not liked by boiler engineers.


Thursday, August 1, 2013

What are the ingredients of Action Research Model in Organization Development (OD)? How does it benefit?

Action research is essentially a mixture of three ingredients:

A) The highly participative nature of OD,
B) The consultant nature of OD, the consultant role of collaborator and co-learner, and
C) The iterative process of diagnosis and action.

The action research model as applied in OD consists of:-

(1) A preliminary diagnosis,
(2) Data gathering from the client group,
(3) Data feedback to the client group,
(4) Exploration of the data by the client group,
(5) Action planning by the client group,
(6) Action taking by the client group, and
(7) Evaluation and assessment of the results of the actions by the client group with an OD practitioner acting as a facilitator throughout the process.

Action research yields both change and new knowledge: Change occurs based the actions taken, and new knowledge comes from examining the results of the actions. The client group learns what works, what does not work, and why.

Other  Posts :

What are the goals of OD? Which problems are addressed by OD experts?

What is organizational development ?

How to define employees Goals and Work Standards?

Monday, May 6, 2013

Explain Pro- Note

Pro-note means a Promissory Note as per Negotiable Instrument Act. Section 4 of the Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881  defines a promissory note as an instrument in writing (not being a bank note or a currency note) containing an unconditional undertaking, signed by the maker, to pay a certain sum of money only to or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the instrument

  • The Promissory Note has to be written, duly signed by the maker.
    Sample of Pro-note for concept
  • It should be properly stamped as per Indian Stamp Act. 
  • It must make a promise to pay and not an acknowledgement of indebtedness.
  • The amount payable must be certain.
  • It can be endorsed to a third party
  • Acceptance is not essential
The Parties to Pro Note are :
  1. The maker or Drawer :  The person who makes the note and promises to pay the amount stated there in.
  2. The Payee – The person to whom the amount is payable.
In case of the transfer of Promissory Note by payee to others, payee becomes  the Endorser.
  1. The Endorser :-  The person who endorses the note in favour of another person
  2. The Endorsee – The person in whose favour the note is negotiated by endorsement.

Other  Posts  :

Thursday, January 31, 2013

Why is identification of SBU important?

It is important to remember that competitive strategy in an organization is created in the separate business units of the organization. Most organizations have a number of business units, which are competing in different markets, where customers or clients have different needs and require different products or services. So to understand business-level strategy it is important to be able to identify the SBUs in an organization.

Definition : A strategic business unit is a part of an organization for which there is a distinct external market for goods or services that is different from another SBU.

Other Posts :

What care is required while Identifying Strategic Business Units ?

A strategic business unit is a part of an organization for which there is a distinct external market for goods or services that is different from another SBU.

Identification of SBU is essential to the development of business level strategy, as its unique for each SBU.

There are two opposing pitfalls that need to be avoided:

If each product and each geographical branch (and so on) is considered to be an independent SBU such immense variety of competitive strategies for a single organization would create a lack of focus and inefficiency.

On the other hand, the concept of the SBU is important in properly reflecting the diversity of products and markets that actually exist.

There are two broad criteria which can help in avoiding these two pitfalls and, therefore, in identifying SBUs that are useful when developing business level strategies.

External criteria for identifying SBUs are about the nature of the marketplace for different parts of the organization.

·         Two parts of an organization should only be regarded as the same SBU if they are
Ø  Targeting the same customer types,
Ø  Through the same sorts of channels and
Ø  Facing similar competitors.

For example, a ‘unit’ tailoring products/services to specific local needs cannot belong to the same SBU as another that offers standardized products or services globally. Nor are units that offer the same products to a customer group through exclusively different channels (retail or mail-order/internet).

Internal criteria identifying SBUs are about the nature of an organisation’s strategic capability its resources and competences.

·         Two parts of an organization should only be regarded as the same SBU if they have

Ø  Similar products/services built on
Ø  Similar technologies and
Ø  Sharing a similar set of resources and competences.

This usually means that the cost structure of the ‘units’ will be similar.

So within a company like Kodak the units offering film based products are not in the same SBU as those offering digital photography products even though they are addressing the same customers through the same channels.

Other Posts :

Monday, January 14, 2013

Name the strategies MNEs choose to compete in international environment

Generally, MNEs choose from four basic strategies to guide how they will enter and compete in the international environment:
1. An international strategy,
2. A multi domestic strategy,
3. A global strategy, or
4. A transnational strategy.

Each of these strategies differs fun­damentally regarding where managers put value activities and how they try to run them. We now define each strategy, identifying its implications for configuring and coordinating a value chain, and discuss its particular benefits and drawbacks.

Related Posts :


Define and Explain International Business Strategy

International strategy is “A strategy through which the firm sells its goods or services outside its domestic market.”

Companies adopt an international strategy when they aim to leverage their core competencies by expanding opportunistically into foreign markets. International firms include the likes of McDonald's, Kellogg, Google, Haier, Wal-Mart, and Microsoft.

The international model relies on local subsidiaries in each country to administer business as instructed by headquarters. Some subsidiaries may have freedom to adapt products to local conditions as well as to set up some light assembly operations or promotion Programs. Still, ultimate control resides with managers at headquarter who reason they best know the basis and potential extension of the company’s core competencies.

International strategy and the value Chain: Historically, critical elements of the company’s value chain, such as research and development to branding, have been centralized at headquarters.

Firms that pursue an international strategy try to create value by transferring core competencies and unique products to those foreign markets where rivals are unable to develop, match, or sustain them. The international strategy, therefore, facilitates the transfer of skills, expertise, and products from the parent company to its subsidiaries. Headquarters can translate their expertise in and control over important activities into powerful positions to command foreign operation to follow their lead.

This expertise and control can take place in manufacturing processes or general management skills. The latter, for example, explains the growth of international hotel chains such as Hilton International, Four Seasons, and Sheraton.

Liability of International Strategy: Under an international strategy, however, the central of headquarters often hinders identifying and responding to local conditions.

These limitations become costly when other companies emphasize customizing their goods and services to local conditions. Carrefour, for instance, ran into this problem in the United States. Carrefour tried shifting its strategy to deal better with local tastes and preferences, but this eventually proved too costly and the company shut down its U.S. operations.

Other Posts :

Define and Explain Multidomestic Business Strategy.

Define & Explain Global Business Strategy.

Define & Explain-transnational.html Business Strategy

Building sustainable competitive advantage